EN_SGC_43proz

 

MS+flags

 

v. 12815+co02.en.13

 

 

 

The Council of the European Union

PRADO

Glossary

 013

Technical terms related to security features and to
security documents in general
(013)

(in alphabetical order)

 

 


 00P

 

 

 

Preface

 

 

 

This publicly available glossary, first issued in 2007, is an example of successful cooperation between European document experts from all European Union Member States and Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland who regularly meet in the Council's Working Party on Frontiers/False Documents – Mixed Committee.

 

The purpose of this glossary is not only to explain technical terms used in document descriptions in PRADO (Public Register of Authentic identity and travel Documents Online), but also to promote the use of consistent terminology and contribute to mutual understanding as a basis for effective communication and for police and administrative cooperation – in 23 official EU languages. It is also intended to help raise awareness among those having to check identities and ID documents - document experts will not be able to decide on the authenticity of a questioned document unless suspicions are raised by PRADO users who ask their local police, or the responsible national contact point, for further guidance.

 

Contributing to better communication and cooperation is a means of combating illegal immigration and organised crime and strengthens security at the external borders and elsewhere.

 

I would like to thank all those who made it possible to produce this PRADO Glossary.

 

 

 

 

 

2012-09-25

Rafael Fernández-Pita y González

 

Director-General

Directorate-General Justice and Home Affairs

General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

000

Preface

Introduction

Anti-scan / anti-copy pattern

Background / security printing

Barcode / 2D barcode

Binding technique

Biodata / photo / signature integration

Biographical / other personalisation text

Biometric identifier (biometrics)
   ·    e-Passport

Bleeding (penetrating) ink

Co-axial light

Collation mark / floating numeration

Coloured security fibres

DID® - Diffractive Identification Device

Document code

Embossing stamp

Endless text

FADO

Fluorescent fibres

Fluorescent hi-lites

Fluorescent ink

Fluorescent overprint

Fluorescent planchettes

Fluorescent security thread

Fluorescent serial number

Fluorescent stitching thread

Fugitive ink

Gravure printing

Guilloches / fine-line patterns

Hologram

Hot foil stamping

Identigram®

Identity fraud and document fraud

iFADO

Image (printing) containing invisible personal information (IPI) or scrambled document related information

Ink stamp

Inkjet printing

Intaglio printing

Iridescent ink

Iridescent laminate

Kinegram®

Laminate

   ·   Laminate overprint

   ·   Laminate embossing

   ·   Laminate integrated by binding

Laminate UV feature

Laser engraving

Laser perforation
    ·   Laser-perforated serial number
    ·   Laser-perforated fine structures and designs (rip cuts)
   
·   Secondary (ghost) image - laser-perforated
   
·   Laser perforation with tilting effect

Laser print/copy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Latent image

Letterpress printing

Machine Readable Travel Document - MRTD

Machine Readable Zone - MRZ

Machine verifiable feature

Magnetic strip

Metallic ink

Metameric colours

Microchip – contact

Microchip – contactless

Miniprint, and microprintt

Needle perforation

Needle printing

Numbering

Oblique light

Offset printing

Optical stripe

OVD (Optically Variable Device)

OVI (Optically Variable Ink)

PC (polycarbonate)

Photochromic ink

Photograph of the holder - fixing methods
   ·   Photo Patch
   ·   Glued
   ·   Eyelets (rivets)
   ·   Stapled

Photographic paper

Photographic process

Planchettes

PRADO

Pre-printed text

PVC (polyvinylchloride) card

Rainbow colouring

Relief embossing

Retroreflective laminate

Schablon (stencil) multiple colouring process

Screen printing

Secondary (ghost) image

Security thread

See-through register

Serial number

Stitching thread

Substrate without optical brightener

Synthetic fibres

Tank tracking - perforation

Thermal dye sublimation

Thermal transfer printing

Thermochromic ink

Tilting effect

Transmitted light

Transparent window

UV light (ultraviolet light)

Variable laser image

Watermark
  
·   Single tone watermark
   ·   Duotone watermark
   ·   Multitone watermark

 

* 00I

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

 

 

This glossary is included to assist the reader with terms that appear within PRADO; it does NOT provide scientific definitions – its main purpose is to help anyone who is not involved in checking security documents on a daily basis to understand the wording and to recognise some of the more important security features contained in travel and identity documents. To this end, simple, non-exhaustive definitions, examples and explanations are provided.

 

 

In order to consult the same chapter in a different language version of this document, look for the corresponding grey three-digit chapter number on the top right-hand side of each chapter.

 

 

Please send any suggestions for improvements and observations on errors and bugs to: helpline.PRADO@consilium.europa.eu

 

We suggest you to first consult the chapter on   IDENTITY FRAUD and DOCUMENT FRAUD if you want to read this alphabetic glossary e.g. for training purposes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 120

Anti-scan / anti-copy pattern

  

Anti-scan / anti-copy patterns are printed security features integrated in the     background / security printing to protect against simulation through copying.

The printed images and patterns contain embedded (hidden) information (usually constructed of fine lines) that is invisible to the naked eye under normal inspection conditions but becomes visible or legible or causes flaws (mistakes) to appear after copying or reproduction with a scanner.

 

 

 

Original

 

Copy ("COPIE" is visible)

 


 

2nd example:

Orientation- and angle-modulated fine-line structures (SAM = Screen Angle Modulation)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anti-copy pattern

 

 

 


 

 

 

 026

Background / security printing

 

Background / security printing serves as a protection against counterfeiting and manipulation of data.

 

 

  guilloches / fine-line patterns  
  microprint

  rainbow colouring

  see-through register

  latent image

 

 

For background printing, traditionally  offset printing is used as a background to other security printing techniques and security elements like e.g.   intaglio printing,     pre-printed text and    biographical data in security documents.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Background / security printing with various features, here:

 

·          guilloches / fine-line patterns

·          grid pattern

·          microprint

·          solid-coloured areas, and

·          relief fine lines.

 

 

Not to be confused with:    Pre-printed text.

 

 

 


 

 004

Barcode / 2D barcode

 

Machine readable information.

See also:    Machine verifiable feature

 

A barcode (1D barcode) stores data in the widths of, and spaces between, printed parallel lines (bars) for machine-optical data capture.

 

 

 

 

 

1D barcode representing serial number

 

 

A 2D barcode (two-dimensional barcode) stores data along two dimensions and is therefore capable of containing much more information:

 

2D barcode

 

 

 

 

 

 (058), (059)

 005

 

Binding technique

 

Binding is the act of combining single sheets to form a book, booklet or brochure.

Most common binding techniques used for ID documents:

 059

Thread stitching -  "stitched in the spine"  (saddle stitching with    stitching thread ).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 058

 

Overall construction: a booklet may be constructed as a single booklet or a multiple booklet.

 

Single booklet

Multiple booklet

 

 

 003

Reinforcing strip: makes for a stronger construction:

 

 

 

 

 

See also:    Laminate integrated by binding

 


 

 

 122

Biodata / photo / signature integration

 

Biodata / photo / signature integration refers to an operation whereby a printing, (laser-) engraving or photographic technique is used (as opposed to a typewriter or writing by hand) to incorporate an image (photograph of holder), a signature or biodata text directly into the substrate or laminate during the personalisation process.

 

Photo integration: The image will not constitute a separate (e.g. glued) component of the document, but will form an integral part of it: the photo is printed on (sometimes also, in addition, a   Secondary (ghost) image, e.g. converted into a perforated pattern design on) the visual inspection zone (VIZ) on the biodata page.

 

Integration here is independent of whether the biodata text / image is laminated or not.

 

 

See also:    Biographical / other personalisation text

 

 

 

Integration techniques:

 

  Inkjet printing

  Laser engraving

  Laser printing

  Photographic process

  Thermal dye sublimation

  Thermal transfer printing

 

 

Laser-engraved integrated image

 

 

Biodata, photo & signature integration by   photographic process  

 

 

 

 


 

 123

Biographical / other personalisation text

 

Personalisation is the process whereby the document holder's image, signature and biographical data are incorporated into a document.

 

The holder's biographical data (biodata) appear in the visual inspection zone - VIZ and in the    MRZ (Machine Readable Zone)   of a passport (on the biodata page), ID card or visa; in    e-passports   they are also included in the    microchip.

 

See also:    Holographic personalised security thread

 

 

 

Integrated biodata card (biodata page) of a passport

 

 

 

VIZ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MRZ

 

 

See also:    Biodata / photo / signature integration

 

 

 


 

 181

Biometric identifier (biometric data)

A biometric identifier is a personal biological (anatomical or physiological) or behavioural characteristic which can be used to establish a person's identity by comparing it with stored reference data. Traditionally, the most popular biometric identifiers are fingerprints and the facial image. Other frequently used biometric identifiers include the iris image and hand geometry. Biometric identifiers can be used for biometric recognition processes such as facial and iris recognition. The method of measuring biometric identifiers is known as biometrics.

 

 182

·       e-Passport

 

In e-passports, biodata are stored in an embedded microchip (integrated circuit).  Pursuant to  ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) specifications, a    microchip - contactless - as a minimum requirement - stores the data contained in the     MRZ (Machine Readable Zone)  of the biodata page of the passport and the facial image as the interoperable biometric identifier. Additional biometric identifiers, e.g. fingerprints, or iris images, are also included.

 

The biometric data on the chip can be compared with the document holder's biometric characteristics and the data on the biodata page of the document. This can for example be done manually, by using a document reader, or an automated e-gate system can be used. As a safeguard to protect the authenticity and integrity of the stored data, a digital signature is used. The technology used is called the ICAO Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). The digital signature can be used by checking authorities to ensure that the data in the chip of an e-passport come from the correct, trusted issuing authority and have not been altered.

 

 

An ICAO-compliant e-passport will feature the international e-passport symbol on its outside front cover:

 

 

See also:    Biographical / other personalisation text

See also:    Biodata / photo / signature integration

 

See also:    Machine readable travel document (MRTD)

See also:    Machine verifiable feature

 

 

 


 

 124

Bleeding (penetrating) ink

 

Bleeding (penetrating) ink is a security ink containing dyes which, together with the solvent used, penetrate ("bleed out or through") the paper substrate so that any attempt at mechanical erasure will cause visible damage to the document.

 

Serial number printed in bleeding (penetrating) ink

Part of the numbering ink has bled through the paper substrate and can be seen on the reverse side.

 

Not to be confused with    fugitive ink.

 

 


 

 

 126

Co-axial light

 

Co-axial light is light that passes through an optical system parallel to the optical axis (e.g. retro-viewer), for instance where the direction of illumination and direction of observation are in parallel.

Co-axial light is used to reveal hidden motifs in     retroreflective laminate (e.g. 3M ®  Confirm ®  laminate).

 

 

The angle of view is co-axial to the (re-directed) light beam:

 

 

 

Semi-transparent mirror

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page of document

(Security laminate)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Document examiner

 

 

Light source / angle of incidence of light

 

 

 

 

 

See also:     Oblique light

See also:     Transmitted light

 

See also:     UV light

 

 

 


 

 112

Collation mark / floating numeration

 

    (Columns of the dynasty of Gediminas)                                                                                              ( "LTU" )

 

 

 

 

 

Collation mark is originally a bookbinding term. In order to produce a complete work (brochure, book, periodical, etc.), the various parts (sheets and folded sheets that have been nipped - sections) must be collated in the right order. This is ensured by placing collation marks as check marks (in the case of books, usually at the spine of the book block) in a staggered arrangement from top to bottom.

 

In passports, this type of check mark is an additional safeguard. It makes it easier to spot whether any pages have been exchanged or removed.

 

It can be invisible under normal light   fluorescent overprint, or a visible feature (using normal ink or   fluorescent ink).

 

The combination of collation mark and page numbers is sometimes called floating numeration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 022

Coloured security fibres

 

Coloured security fibres are fibres in various colours which are mixed into the paper pulp during the paper manufacturing process, so that they are embedded in the paper in random places at varying depths - different on each page. 

 

See also:    Substrate without optical brightener

 

The colour makes security fibres stand out clearly against the paper; they can easily be seen with the naked eye.

 

See also:

  Fluorescent fibres

  Planchettes  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Red fibres in the paper substrate (using magnification)

 

Transmitted light (using magnification)

Normal light

 

 

 

Not to be confused with   synthetic fibres (which contribute to the mechanical properties of the substrate).

 

 

 

 

 190

DID® - Diffractive Identification Device

 

The DID® is a type of     DOVID (Diffractive Optically Variable Image Device).

 

The DID® contains two diffractive colours visible at direct reflection angle. On a 90° in-plane rotation a clear colour switch is visible. This enables easy examination.

 

Different foil effects from other    DOVIDs can be incorporated.

 

 

 


DID®   Hologram.Industries

 

 

 

 

 

See:    OVD (Optically Variable Device)

 

 


 

 128

Document code

 

The document codes used in this database for AUTHENTIC (GENUINE) DOCUMENTS are made up of the following components:

 

For example: "FRA-AO-01001"  -  this code consists of:

 

·                     "FRA" for France, the document country                  = 3-letter country code    

·                     "A" for Passport (national passport)                          = Document category

·          "O" for Ordinary                                                        = Document type

·                     "01001" (5 digits), of which the first two ("01")           = Document number

 the last three ("001")            = Version number

 

The following documents can be described in PRADO:

 

 

Document categories:

 

 

Document types:

 

 

 

 

 

A

Passport *

 

 

 

B

Identity card

 

 

 

C

Visa

 

 

 

E

Entry paper

 

O

Ordinary document

F

Driving licence

 

D

Diplomatic

G

Vehicle licence/ log book

 

S

Service / Official

H

Residence document

 

F

Military

I

Seaman's book

 

P

Emergency / Provisional

J

Travel document issued to non-nationals

 

Y

Related / associated document

K

Train driving licence

 

 

 

L

Crew Member Certificate / Pilot's Licence

 

 

 

M

Certificate for operators of pleasure crafts / Captain's licence

 

 

 

S

Special authorisation card

 

 

 

V

Authorisation to represent a company

 

 

 

X

Other document

 

 

 

 

D

Stamp

 

E

Entry Stamp

 

 

 

X

Exit stamp

 

P

Civil status document

 

B

Birth

 

 

 

N

Nationality / Citizenship

 

 

 

I

Social security card / Tax card

 

 

 

A

Adoption

 

 

 

M

Marriage

 

 

 

U

Registered partnership

 

 

 

R

Divorce

 

 

 

T

Death certificate

*)   All types of national passports

v   

 

Document category is an obligatory field in the document code of each document

v   

Document type is not an obligatory part of the document code.

 

 

Not all of these document categories and document types are described in the PRADO database.

 

If a FALSE DOCUMENT is described in one of our other databases, its description uses the same document code as the corresponding authentic document, immediately followed by the number of detected false documents (in ascending order) within parenthesis:

 

For example: "FRA-AO-01001 (3)" - this is the third detected type of FALSE DOCUMENT which is based on the authentic document "FRA-AO-01001".

 

 

 


 

 084

 

Embossing stamp

 

Embossing is an impression in relief made by means of a seal or stamp, e.g. to authenticate a document, or a conventionally fixed (e.g. glued) image of the holder in the document.

 

The impression appears with a partly raised / lowered surface both on the front and reverse side.

 

 

 

 

 

Authentication: See also:

See also:    Relief embossing

See also:    Ink stamp

 

See also:    Photograph of the holder   -  fixing methods

 

 


 

 (090), (091)

 129

Endless text

 

Endless text denotes repeated, sometimes unspaced, lines of text in the     background / security printing   or in a     security thread.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 091

Endless text may be positive text:

 

 

 

 090

or

reversed-out text:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Miniprint and  microprint

 

 

 

 

 183

EN_SGC_43proz

 

FADO

 

FADO (False and Authentic Documents Online) has been established pursuant to the Council Joint Action 98/700/JHA.

 

1.    Expert FADO, a classified ("RESTREINT UE / EU RESTRICTED") system, provides for the exchange of information (on false as well as genuine travel and identity documents) between document experts regularly meeting in the Working Party on Frontiers - Mixed Committee in the formation of false documents experts.

 

2.    The access restricted    iFADO (Intranet FADO) system is the second level of FADO. It contains the most important information for document and identity checking, derived from Expert FADO. It is for governmental and law enforcement use.

 

3.    The  PRADO system contains a considerably further reduced set of information on authentic documents and is made available to the public by the General Secretariat of the Council of the EU (GSC) via  www.prado.consilium.europa.eu.

 

The information is selected and provided by document experts in EU Member States, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.

 

The information in all three systems is currently available in 24 official languages of the European Union.

 

Highest quality and reliability

   ·  Documents are introduced by document experts all over Europe.

   ·  The information contained is validated by all participating document experts.

   ·  Several quality assurance and validation steps assure consistent and highly standardised information.

   ·  High-quality translations are performed automatically by the system, as well as by specialised translators in the GSC.

 

The FADO system family is hosted by the General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union (GSC) - General Directorate for Justice and Home Affairs (DG D). Its technical implementation and maintenance is performed by DG A CIS.

 


General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union, Directorate-General Justice and Home Affairs,
DG D 1A,

Rue de la Loi 175, 1048 Brussels, Belgium, Europe.

helpline.PRADO@consilium.europa.eu

 

 

 

 

 132

Fluorescent fibres

 

Fibres with fluorescent properties (visible under     UV light) are mixed into the paper pulp during the paper substrate manufacturing process, to serve as a security feature. Fluorescent fibres show up in random places at varying depths - different on each page.

They may be visible (    coloured security fibres) or invisible under NORMAL LIGHT.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluorescent fibres can show one or more colours under UV light

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Invisible fibres (under normal light) fluoresce red, yellow & green under UV light

 

 

 

  Fluorescent hi-lites

  Fluorescent planchettes

  Substrate without optical brightener

 

 


 

 

 111

Fluorescent hi-lites

 

Fluorescent hi-lites are very small fluorescent particles in the substrate (visible under     UV light); they are mixed into the paper pulp during the paper substrate manufacturing process to serve as a security feature.

 

 

 

 

 

  Fluorescent fibres

  Fluorescent planchettes

 

  Substrate without optical brightener

 

 


 

 133

Fluorescent ink

 

Ink containing not only colour pigments, but also fluorescent substances (pigments), used to print both text and motifs, is called fluorescent ink. This type of ink is visible under normal light and fluoresces under     UV light.

 

Fluorescence is a short-lived light emission which ceases to glow practically immediately after the illuminating light source has been extinguished - within 10-8 seconds.

 

Background printing
under normal light.

Same passport: - fluorescent ink; the brown colour
in the background printing fluoresces green.

 

 

Not to be confused with    fluorescent overprint.

 

See also:     Background / security printing

 

 

 

 


 

 (051)

 024

Fluorescent overprint

 051

Fluorescent overprint is invisible(051) (colourless) under normal light, but fluoresces (i.e. is visible under     UV light).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Under normal light

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The fluorescent overprint is visible under UV light

 

 

 

Not to be confused with    fluorescent ink.

 

See also:    Laminate UV feature

 

 

 


 

 134

Fluorescent planchettes

 

  Planchettes (small coloured discs) with fluorescent properties (visible under     UV light) are mixed into the paper pulp during the paper substrate manufacturing process to serve as a security feature. Fluorescent planchettes may be either visible or invisible under normal light.

 

 

 

 

 

See also:    Fluorescent fibres

See also:    Fluorescent hi-lites

 

  Substrate without optical brightener

 

 


 

 135

Fluorescent security thread

 

A thin strip of plastic, metallic, or other material is embedded or partially embedded in the substrate during the paper substrate manufacturing process; a fluorescent security thread fluoresces when exposed to     UV light. This reaction can also be multi-coloured.

 

 

 

 

See also:    Security thread

 

 

See:     Substrate

 

 

 

 

 136

Fluorescent serial number

 

A unique document number is printed on a document and assigned as an additional safeguard for identification; a fluorescent serial number fluoresces when exposed to   UV light.

 

 

 

 

See also:    Numbering

 

 

 


 

 137

Fluorescent stitching thread

 

A fluorescent stitching thread is a thread (it can also consist of several individual, interlaced, threads) that is used for holding together the pages of a booklet, which fluoresces in one or several colours when exposed to     UV light.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Under normal light

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Under UV light

 

See also:    Stitching thread

 

 


 

 093

Fugitive ink

 

Fugitive ink is a type of soluble ink which dissolves in certain solvents or water; for example when a forger tries to erase and alter personalisation text which is printed on top of it, this ink causes parts of the security / background printing to disappear or bleach.

 

 

 

 

Not to be confused with    bleeding (penetrating) ink.

 

 


 

 139

Gravure printing

 

This printing technique, similar to    intaglio printing, uses printing plates with recessed areas or cells which form the printed image.

 

The printing plate comes into direct contact with the substrate. The depth and size of the recessed cells determine the amount of ink that is transferred to the substrate. Very fluid and rapidly drying inks are used. This also allows inks to be printed on top of one another. The cell structure may sometimes be seen.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gravure printing: printing form for text

 

 

 

In security printing the gravure printing technique is for example used for     laminate overprint:

 

Close-ups of laminate overprint

 

 

 

 


 

 (110)

 028

Guilloches / fine-line patterns

 

Fine (intricate) designs, consisting of interlaced continuous lines, are arranged in geometric patterns.

 

Security printing uses designs of guilloches or of other fine-line patterns with the aim of raising the barrier for re-origination and reproduction. Guilloches and other fine-line patterns are sometimes combined with    rainbow colouring.

 

 

Positive and negative guilloche patterns 

110

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Relief fine-line patterns110

 

 

 


 

 039

Hologram

 

The hologram is the most popular traditional type of     DOVID (Diffractive Optically Variable Image Device) that is used as a security element. A number of effects are possible, e.g. 2D holograms (2-dimensional holograms) with structural and colour changes, 3D holograms with images, holograms with kinematic effects, etc.

 

 

2D hologram

3D hologram

 

 

 

 

  OVD (Optically Variable Device)

 

 

 


 

 (019, 020)

 140

Hot foil stamping

 

Hot foil stamping involves the transfer of foil by means of a heated stamping die; it can be regarded as a form of     letterpress printing.

The basic differences between hot foil stamping and letterpress are the use of stamping foil instead of viscous ink as the printing medium, and the indirect heating of the printing form. Due to the combined effect of temperature and pressure, a layer of foil is released from the carrier, at the points where the stamping die has raised areas, and is then transferred to the substrate in which it is permanently and indelibly embedded.

 

 

 

 

 019

 020

Hot foil stamping is often used to print text and motifs on passport covers  -

for example gold stamping 019, or silver stamping 020.

 

Hot foil stamping is also used for the application of    holograms  and    kinegrams®, etc.

 

 

 


 

 176

Identigram®

 179

The Identigram® is a holographic security feature used for example in passports and ID cards, combining several individual elements:

 

·         a holographic facial image of the holder (  secondary (ghost) image)  

·         the    MRZ (Machine Readable Zone)  

and elements that are identical for all documents of the series, here, for example:

·           the German eagle in 3D

·           kinematic structures

·           macroprint

·             microprint  

·             machine verifiable features.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biodata page with Identigram®  (composed image!)

 

 

 

 

  OVD (Optically Variable Device)

 

 

 


 

 192

Identity fraud and document fraud

 

 

 

Identity fraud and document fraud

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Authentic (genuine) document

 

False document

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Illegal use

 

Irregular use

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Imperso-nation

 

Fraudulently obtained document

 

Expired document

 

Misused document

 

Forgery

 

Counterfeit

 

Pseudo document

 

Stolen blank (unlawfully personalised)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Here   iFADO information can help you detect fraud.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FRONTEX

This identity and document fraud model was adopted by the EUROPEAN UNION DOCUMENT-FRAUD Risk Analysis Network (EDF-ARA 2012 Ref R023) and is also used by FRONTEX.

 

Impersonation:   A person - the impostor - practises deception under an assumed character, identity or name. Impostors always use genuine documents, so imposture, or impersonation for example also applies to an authentic passport containing a false visa or stamp, or to a genuine visa in a forged passport.

 

Fraudulently obtained document:   This generic term covers both authentic documents applied for on the basis of fraudulent source documents, as well as fraudulently issued authentic documents.

 

Expired document:   See expiry date ("Valid until") in the document. à Then check if the document is, under applicable law, still valid for the purpose for which it is being used?

 

Misused document:  Includes suspected misuse - for example, a student visa is used for immigration, but the immigrating holder intends from the outset to work in the target country; this section of irregularly used documents also covers, if for example a short term residence permit is used instead of a visa, while only the holder of the type of permit "LONG-TERM RESIDENT - EC", a long-term resident's EC residence permit (Council Directive 2003/109/EC), or for example the holder of a diplomatic residence card, can lawfully use this type of permit instead of a visa (if a visa is required).

 

See:    iFADO

 

 

 184

EN_SGC_43proz

 

iFADO


intranet False and Authentic Documents Online

 

 

iFADO, the "second level" of FADO, contains only unclassified, but circulation-restricted, information. The documents are not intended for the general public, but are labelled "LIMITE/LIMITED – FOR CONTROL AUTHORITY USE ONLY".

The target audience consists of all national and European authorities and law-enforcement agencies involved in checking identities.

 

If you check identities, you also have to check identity and travel documents.

 

See:   Identity fraud and document fraud

 

To be able to do so, you have to know what the document should look like; in addition to the technical specifications (including security features) of authentic documents, iFADO informs you on the most common detection points for false documents.

 

   ®    When examining a document it is important to know its technical details

 

iFADO is intended to help raise awareness and ascertain the authenticity of documents; doubts can then be followed up by document experts. National contact points (document experts and others) are provided in iFADO.

iFADO also contains information on typical forgeries and forgery techniques as well as guidelines on the detection of identity fraud.

iFADO contains the most important information on the validity and on other legal aspects of documents, as well as technical descriptions (including descriptions of the most important security features). Authentic travel documents and other identity documents, visas, stamps and some civil status documents of the Member States of the European Union and of many non-EU countries are described.

As iFADO describes specimens of genuine travel documents, visas and stamps, as well as typical instances of falsifications (with anonymised personal data), there is no overlap between iFADO and, for instance, SIS.

iFADO information comes from the classified "RESTREINT UE / EU RESTRICTED" Expert FADO system. The information contained in iFADO is selected and provided by document experts in EU Member States, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland ( Expert FADO partners). The steering committee in the Council of the EU is the Working Party on Frontiers/False Documents.

iFADO is hosted by the General Secretariat of the Council of the EU (GSC), in the Directorate-General for Justice and Home Affairs (DG D). Technical implementation and maintenance are the responsibility of DG A CIS.

In addition to the central system and central access point (the central proxy), which are hosted by the GSC, national proxy servers have been set up and are operated by several FADO partners; this ensures faster and easier access for governmental and law-enforcement users in these countries.

 

Target audience

National authorities involved in checking identities and identity and travel documents, and other European persons and bodies applying legislation/law-enforcement agencies, including for example:

  ·    Border guards

  ·    Embassies and Consulates

  ·    Police

  ·    Social security agencies

  ·    Europol

  ·    FRONTEX

Most of the text entries in iFADO documents are standardised descriptions which are translated automatically into the currently supported 24 official languages of the EU. Thus immediate availability as well as a high degree of standardisation is assured. Free-text descriptions are translated by specialised linguists in the GSC.


Mission

The main aim of iFADO is to provide information to national authorities that (are required to) check identities. iFADO is intended to help raise awareness and ascertain the authenticity of documents; doubts can then be followed up by document experts.

 

Motivation

Information on identity and travel documents and typical forgeries is not only relevant in the context of irregular and illegal immigration, but it is also important when dealing with all forms of organised crime, such as terrorism, drugs trafficking, arms smuggling and human trafficking. iFADO thus constitutes a significant tool in combating these phenomena, which are of concern to EU Member States, thereby helping to create a secure environment and to further the development of Europe as an area of peace, security and stability in the world.

 

Further proceedings in practice

Irrespective of a document's origin, questions (including on particulars of foreign documents) are to be addressed to the respective National Contact Point for Identity and Travel Documents (contact details are available via the homepage of iFADO) by iFADO users.

 

 

For authorised personnel, access is always possible via the central proxy server in the GSC, and in some countries in addition via national proxy servers (intranet/national governmental networks).

 

Management of the end-user accounts and provision of end-user support are always the responsibility of the national authorities.

 

Access information, how to get an iFADO account: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ifado/ifadocontacts.htm

 

   See also:     FADO

   See also:     PRADO

 

 

 


 

 042

Image (printing) containing invisible personal information (IPI) or scrambled document related information

 

By means of special software tools a non-visible image is encoded in a visible image (in the printing).

For example

 

·   individual information such as the passport number, or personalisation information like the holder's name, is invisibly embedded e.g. in the photograph of the holder (IPI - Invisible Personal Information), or

 

·   document related (static) information, such as e.g. the country’s name, is embedded in the   background / security printing of travel documents (invisible "scrambled" information).

 

This information is invisible to the human eye, as it is printed in "scrambled" format; it can only be seen using a special decoder lens (a special viewer), or special technical equipment (including scanner or camera and image processing software).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Here, as an exception to the rule, a transparent plastic card is integrated in the passport (!) before the biodata page, which includes a decoder lens that fits over the facial image to reveal the Invisible Personal Information (IPI)

 

Not to be confused with    latent image, or with    tilting effect.

 

 

 


 

 083

Ink stamp

 

Liquid ink is transferred to the substrate by means of a stamp,  e.g. for the authentication of a document or of a conventionally fixed (e.g. glued) image of the holder.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Authentication: See also:

See also:    Embossing stamp

See also:    Relief embossing

 

See also:    Photograph of the holder  -  fixing methods

 

 

 

 

 

Proof of entry into the Schengen area at an external border. "

 

 

 


 

 (196)

 047

Inkjet printing

 

Inkjet printing is a printing technique using a type of computer printer that operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink directly onto the substrate, whereupon the ink penetrates the substrate. It can e.g. be used for    biodata / photo / signature integration.

 

 

 

Biodata / photo integration using inkjet printing technique

 

 

 

Biodata & photo integration with inkjet printing

 

 

 196

Inkjet printing colour personalisation inside a polycarbonate card:
Using special polycarbonate ink, personal data are printed on a PC layer in the course of the
  PC (polycarbonate) card production process;
e.g. Innosec Fusion
®, Polycore®, PCC® or PCP (Polycarbonate Colour Personalisation).

 

 

Photo integration within the polycarbonate card (Innosec Fusion® process)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PCP (Polycarbonate Colour Personalisation) technology

 

 

 


 

 002

Intaglio printing

 

Intaglio printing is a printing technique producing a raised tactile relief (a tactile feature), which can also be recognised under    oblique light.

This characteristic of intaglio printing is also suitable to produce the effect of    latent images.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raised (=relief) surface

Oblique light casting shadows

 

 

 

Not to be confused with    gravure printing.

 204

Not to be confused with PEAK® - a technology combining offset and intaglio printing: Colour (or other) changes are visible depending on the angle of view and the angle of incidence of light.

 

Not to be confused with    raised (tactile) laser engraving in plastic laminates or cards.

 

 198

Intaglio printing without using ink leads to paper deformation and can thus be used to produce an embossing effect produced by the lithographic process. It is also possible to produce inkless latent image effects using blind intaglio (intaglio embossing).

  Schablon (stencil) multiple colouring process

 

 

 


 

 052

Iridescent ink

 

Iridescent inks in general, as for example pearl inks, pearl lustre inks, or mother-of-pearl inks, contain transparent pigments consisting of a thin film containing tiny mica flakes. They cause interference with the incident light. This creates shiny, pearl-like shimmering effects which change in colour when the angle of view or illumination changes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See also:    Iridescent laminate

 

 

 


 

 143

Iridescent laminate

 

An Iridescent laminate shows iridescent - shiny, pearl-like effects with change in colour when the angle of view or the illumination changes.

 

 

 

 

See also:    Iridescent ink

See also:    Laminate

See also:    OVD (Optically Variable Device)

 

 

 


 

 054

Kinegram®

 

The Kinegram® is a computer-generated hologram (   DOVID) capable of producing multiple high-resolution images. It contains special types of computer-generated diffractive optical elements. These can be designed in different ways to exhibit kinematic, colour changing, contrast reversal and other special effects.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Transparent Kinegram®

 

             Kinegram®

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Partially demetallised Kinegram®

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Metallised Kinegram®

 

 

See also:    OVD (Optically Variable Device)

 

 


 

 (018), (056), (057), (144), (145)

 025

Laminate

 057

A laminate is a plastic film that is affixed to the document or biodata page as an additional safeguard by means of:

 

 056

 

 

in order to protect data entries against falsification.

 

 053

Example:  Kinefilm® - heat-applied laminate with integral   Kinegram® patch, existing in both metallised and transparent versions.

 

Thick heat-applied laminates can contain deliberately incorporated (designed) weak points.

 

Laminates can also incorporate specific security features which are usually not freely available on the market.

 

 

 144

·    Laminate overprint

 

Laminate overprint is a security element which tends to be placed on the reverse (=inner) side of the laminate, or between the layer of the adhesive and the laminate. This protects against wear and tampering. Laminate overprint can be visible or invisible under normal light: See:      Laminate UV feature.

 

Laminate overprints tend to be printed using    screen printing,     gravure printing, or flexo printing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 018

·    Laminate embossing

 

Laminate embossing are tactile features such as intricate designs of fine-line patterns or microprint which are incorporated into security laminates by embossing.

 

 

 

Light source:    Oblique light

 

 

 

 

 

Laminate embossing with microprint

 

See also:    Relief embossing

 


 

 145

·    Laminate integrated by binding

 

In many passports with traditional biodata pages the holder's image and the biodata are safeguarded with a transparent laminate. In order to complicate manipulation, the laminate can be integrated in the passport booklet by binding. This will typically leave a strip of laminate forming a narrow margin on the facing page towards the back of the document:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laminate integrated by binding, forming a margin on the facing page

 

 

See also:    Binding technique

See also:    Laminate UV feature

 

 

 


 

 146

Laminate UV feature

 

 

Either    fluorescent ink (ink which is visible under normal light),

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluorescent overprint

 

or    fluorescent overprint (invisible under normal light) form printed security elements on the laminate; they tend to be placed on the reverse (=inner) side of the laminate, or between the layer of adhesive and the laminate. This protects against wear and tampering.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laminate UV  feature: multi-coloured fluorescent overprint

 

 

See also:    Laminate

See also:    Laminate Overprint

 

 


 

 030

Laser engraving

 

Pictures and text are engraved in plastic laminates or cards by means of a laser. In the laser engraving process the data are written by blackening (carbonising) laser-sensitive foils (  PVC or sensitised    PC). Using different photo-sensitive materials, also colours can be obtained.

 

The depth of the laser effects can be deliberately targeted; several technical variations are in use:

 

Examples are:

·                Germany: driving licence (given name, date and place of issue, signature)

·                Switzerland: ID card (surname, given name)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Examples are:

·                Germany: driving licence (surname, date and place of birth, serial number, driving licence categories)

·                Switzerland: ID card (e.g. date of birth on the front)

 

Tactile laser engraving of the numbering

Tactile laser engraving of the date of birth

 

 

                 Not to be confused with raised (tactile)    Intaglio printing on traditional substrates.

 

 

See also:    Variable laser image

 

 


 

 (102), (107), (148)

 147

Laser perforation

 

Using laser technology, perforations of different types and sizes can be produced:

 

 102

·   Laser-perforated serial number

The ID document serial number is perforated through the substrate with a laser.

Typical distinguishing marks are produced:

·        traces of burning round the edges of the holes

·        no raised edges round the holes in the substrate (paper) on the back of the perforations

·        conical decrease in size of the perforated holes in the booklet document when viewed from front to back

·       can have different shapes:

 

 

 

 

 

 

First page of a booklet document

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Last page of the same booklet document

 

 

 

 

See also:    Numbering

See also:    Secondary (ghost) image


 

 148

·   Laser-perforated fine structures and designs (rip cuts)

 

 

 

Laser-perforated structures/designs:
Destri Perf® 

 

 

Rip cuts are designed to be (deliberately incorporated) weak points.

 

 


 

 107

·   Secondary (ghost) image - laser-perforated

Perforation is forming a secondary image of the document holder visible by transmitted light.

Examples include: Image Perf®, Netherlands and Belgian passports.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laser-perforated secondary (ghost) image

 

 

 

See also:    Secondary (ghost) image

 


 

 107a

·   Laser perforation with   tilting effect

The individual letters of the TLI ®  (Tilted Laser Image) are perforated at different angles. Thus the image that can be seen by transmitted light changes depending on the angle of view.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ImagePerf ®
with TLI ®
(Tilted Laser Image)
in the form of the
letters NLD

 

 

 


 

 (044), (098)

 046

Laser print/copy

 044

A laser printer is a type of digital printer that uses electro-photographic processes.

 098

Images are transferred to the substrate using toner as in the case of conventional photocopiers.

 

Laser printing is a possible integration technique for    biodata / photo / signature integration.

 

 

 

 

Biodata & photo integration technique: laser printing

 

 

 

 

MRZ - integration technique: laser printing

 

 

 

 


 

 043

Latent image

 

  Intaglio-printed motif, visible when tilted and viewed under    oblique light. Depending on the angle of the oblique light, the image appears light against a darker background or vice versa.

 

Depending on the angle of the oblique light "RP" is visible in a light or dark colour

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Line structure (90º) of the latent image

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Latent image revealed by tilting the document page

 

 

See also:    Background / security printing

 

 

 


 

 097

Letterpress printing

 

A printing technique in which the printing areas are raised, similar to a stamp. It is one of the oldest printing techniques. It is a direct printing technique, like also the (more modern) flexography, which can be used for printing on almost any kind of substrate, including for example plastic films.

 

 

In security documents letterpress printing is often used for printing sequential numbers such as    serial numbers.

 

 

 

 

 

Serial number in letterpress printing

                   Letterpress form for text printing   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Not to be confused with    indirect letterpress (dry offset).

 

 

 

 

 

 188

Machine Readable Travel Document - MRTD

 

The specifications of Machine Readable Travel Documents (MRTD) - passports, visas and ID cards - are set out in document 9303 of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). Most countries apply these rules in their machine-readable passports, visas and ID cards used for crossing borders. According to these standards, the biodata page of a MRTD is divided into two different zones:

 

082

 

 

Example:  Required elements of an ICAO-compliant Machine Readable VISA (MRV):

 

 

 

Territory covered

 

Number of allowed entries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VIZ:

 

 

Validity period

 

Duration of stay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MRZ

 

 

 

 

 

 

See:    Machine verifiable features

 

See also:    Microchip – contactless

See also:    Password Authenticated Connection Establishment (PACE)

 

 


 

 149

Machine Readable Zone - MRZ

 

In a  Machine Readable Travel Document (MRTD), the Machine Readable Zone (MRZ) contains some of the information from the Visual Inspection Zone in the form of a sequence of alphanumeric characters and the symbol “<”, forming two or three lines. This sequence of characters can be read by document readers in order to facilitate inspections of travel documents (OCR - Optical Character Recognition(082) – fonts).

 

      Form of the MRZ:

·      ID1 / td1 format: 86 (85,6) x 54 (53,98) mm.
Three lines with 30 characters each, situated on the reverse side (verso) of the document.

·       ID2 / td2 format: 105 x 74 mm.
Two lines with 36 characters each, situated at the bottom of the biodata page or visa.

·       ID3 / td3 format (MRP – Machine Readable Passport): 125 x 88 mm.
Two lines with 44 characters each, situated at the bottom of the biodata page.

 

 

Machine readable integrated biodata card (biodata page), ID3 format:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Visual Inspection Zone (VIZ)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-line MRZ (Machine Readable Zone)

 

See: Document 9303 of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO).

 

See also:    Machine verifiable feature

 

 

 

 150

Machine verifiable feature

 

Machine verifiable features (machine assisted document security verification features) are security features that can be read and verified by machines (document readers); they serve to authenticate a travel or identity document by detection or measurement of special physical properties of document elements or structures and also contribute to the authentication of the holder of the document. See:    Machine readable travel document (MRTD).

 

     Barcode / 2D barcode

     Card Access Number (CAN) and Password Authenticated Connection Establishment (PACE)

     Machine Readable Zone – MRZ

     Microchip contact

     Microchip – contactless

     Magnetic strip

     Optical stripe

 

Other (optional) machine verifiable features include

 

1. structure related security features such as e.g.    OVDs (Optically Variable Devices),    retroreflective laminates and   transparent windows

 

2. substance related security features, such as pigments added e.g. to security inks as well as coloured and / or fluorescent fibres and   planchettes  added to the substrate

 

3. data related security features, like for example holographic or magnetic   security threads which store encoded data, or    images (printing) containing invisible personal information (IPI) or scrambled document related information.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grey area recommended by ICAO for structure feature(s)

 

Nominal centre of the structure related feature

 

Machine Readable Zone (MRZ)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grey area recommended by ICAO for substance  feature(s)

 

 

Nominal centre of the substance related feature

 

(Dimensions in mm)

 

 

 

 

 

 119

Magnetic strip

 

Thin strip of magnetic material attached to a plastic card and used for recording data.

 

 

 

 

Magnetic strip

 

See also:    Machine verifiable feature

See also:    Optical stripe

 

 

 

 

 151

Metallic ink

 

Metallic pigments (pigment metals) like aluminium and bronze are used as components of printing inks to produce surfaces with a metallic sheen. Metallic ink is not a security ink in the strict sense, as it is freely available to any commercial printer. Metallic ink is nevertheless a typical anti-copy ink, as a copy (including one produced by a desktop printer) cannot render the original effect.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Silver-coloured metallic pigment

 

 

 

 


 

 (197)

 187

Metameric colours

 

Metameric colours are pairs of (chemically) different colours that can barely be distinguished in one type of illumination (usually in normal, broad daylight), but show a noticeable colour contrast in another type of light, often infrared light, or through a special optical red filter.

 197

A special metameric effect is for example infrared drop-out: the otherwise visible ink cannot be seen in part of the infrared range of the spectrum.

 

Metameric colours are for example used in EURO banknotes.

 


Under normal light                            Infrared drop-out

 

 


 

 152

Microchip – contact

 

Integrated circuit (microchip) for the storage and processing of data, embedded for example in ID cards. The secure electronic medium contains e.g. the personal data: name, date of birth, place of birth, issuing office and a digitised version of the image of the holder. An ID card with a contact chip must be inserted into a reader to make contact with electrical connectors so that the information can be read from it. The visible parts of the chip module are the typical gold contacts.

 

 

 

 

See also:    Machine verifiable feature

See also:    Microchip - contactless

 

 

 


 

 153

Microchip – contactless

 

A contactless integrated circuit (microchip) is used for the storage and the processing of data, embedded e.g. in passports, ID cards and biometric residence permits. The microchip (not visible in most documents), is connected to an aeral (antenna) which allows, communication with the card reader via electromagnetic waves (Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)). To start the transmission, proximity to the reader is required. The protected content of the chip can be read at a distance of 0-10 cm.

 

Biometric or    e-passports incorporate a contactless (or proximity) chip. This chip may be incorporated into the travel document in a variety of ways. The chip may (as illustrated) be embedded within a thick transparent laminate, within the document cover, or within a special polycarbonate page. To maintain data security, often basic access control (BAC) is used (the contactless chip can be read by the relevant reader only once it has been unlocked by a validated PIN code), as well as extended access control - EAC (terminal authentication): as a safeguard, a digital signature (using the ICAO PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) protects the authenticity and integrity of the stored data.

 202

Password Authenticated Connection Establishment (PACE) uses data from the   Machine Readable Zone - MRZ for authentication. As an additional optional data element, a Card Access Number (CAN), which is printed on the    Visual Inspection Zone (VIZ) of the biodata page, can be used for authentication.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exception to the rule: Fully visible (under normal light) microchip and antenna

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See also:    Machine verifiable feature

 

See also:    Microchip – contact

See also:    Biometric identifier

 

 


 

 067

 068

Miniprint(067) and microprint(068)

 

Miniprint and microprint are lines or motifs made up of very small letters or numbers that are barely perceptible to the eye; in documents they often form the guidelines for writing. Miniprint and microprint are also used as security elements of the    background / security printing and in    security threads.

See also    endless text.

 

·       Miniprint(067) may be discerned with the naked eye (but more clearly with magnification).

·       Microprint(068) will often require the use of low magnification, e.g. a jeweller’s loupe.

 

Basic methods of reproduction often do not allow detailed microprinting. Therefore, forged documents will often show unreadable microprint. However, using advanced reproduction techniques it is possible to reproduce miniprint and microprint to a high standard.

 


Miniprint (the blue text) and microprint (smaller purple letters)

 

 

 


 

 101

Needle perforation

 

Needle perforation: Making holes mechanically (by piercing or punching) in order to incorporate a number or motif into a document.

   Serial numbers  are perforated in a regular, matrix-type arrangement of circular, equal‑sized holes always pierced in the same direction. Needle perforation is recognisable by the ridges ("burr") that can be felt on the back of the substrate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Not to be confused with    laser perforation.

 

See:     Numbering

 

 

 


 

 155

Needle printing

 

A needle printer or dot-matrix printer is a type of computer printer which prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the substrate, much like a typewriter, but, unlike a typewriter, letters are drawn out of a dot matrix.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Needle printing

 

 

 


 

 (193)

 070

Numbering

 

The following alphanumeric characters are used to indicate the composition of the  

  serial number within the descriptive text:

 

A:   any letter

N:   any digit

R:   any digit or letter (in a random sequence)

 

e.g.  AA-NNNNNAAA NNN, AANNNN, or A RRRRRRRR.

Other letters are used only if they actually appear in every document of the same series (version) – in such cases they are placed in quotation marks, e.g.  "Nr EE" NNNNNN :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The serial or document number is a unique number that is printed and / or perforated in a document (or in parts of it); its uniqueness allows a document to be traced, e.g. during the production process and if it is lost or stolen.

 

 

  Fluorescent serial number

  Laser-perforated serial number

 

  Needle perforation

  Letterpress printing

 

 

 



 

 193

Not to be confused with the page numbers193 printed for example on the inner pages of a booklet document (passport).

 

 

 

 

 

 156

Oblique light

 

Oblique light: Light from the side, falling at a shallow angle, which reveals the surface structure of an object through contrasts of light and shade.

Oblique light is used especially to inspect     embossing stamps,     intaglio printing,     latent images  and mechanical erasures.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Light source

 

 

 

 

Angle of incidence of light

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Document examiner

 

 

 

 

Angle of view

 

Page of document

 

 

 

See also:     Co-axial light

See also:     Transmitted light

 

See also:     UV light

 

See also:     Latent image

See also:     Tilting effect

 

 

 


 

 157

Offset printing

 

Offset printing (also called lithography, or wet offset) is an indirect printing process in which text and images are transferred from the plate cylinder (with an even surface) to the offset cylinder (rubber blanket) and from there printed on to the substrate. It is characterised by even inking and precise edge limits.

 

 

 

 199

In security printing, another indirect printing process, indirect letterpress (sometimes also called letterset,  dry offset, or indirect relief) printing  is widely used. Here laser or photographic processes (e.g. nyloprint® - photopolymer printing plate) are applied to the flexible printing plate, producing a relief surface; only the raised parts get into contact with the rubber blanket. The printed result is very similar to “wet offset” (the characteristic features of     letterpress printing  can not always be seen).

 

  Rainbow colouring

 

 


 

 118

Optical stripe

 

An optic stripe is a laser-readable memory device with a storage capacity up to 4 MB. Multiple data files including images can be stored; also visual features, like a micro image, security patterns and an    OVD (Optically Variable Device) can be viewed for rapid card authentication.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See also:    Machine verifiable feature

See also:    Magnetic strip

 

 


 

 (079), (115), (177), (178)

 011

OVD (Optically Variable Device)

 

OVDs are security features which show different information, depending on the viewing and/or lighting conditions. This change of appearance is reversible, predictable and reproducible.

 

We differentiate between the following kinds of OVDs:

 

1.        Devices with colour changes based on thin layer interference:

·            iridescent laminate

 

2.        Materials/ Structures with variable reflection characteristics:

 

 115

3.        Diffractive Optically Variable Image Devices - DOVIDs:

DOVIDs contain gratings (usually in the form of surface reliefs) which modify light by diffraction. Thus different effects like two- or three-dimensional images or kinematic and/or colour-changing effects are created. The different DOVIDs differ in their image resolution, brightness, and their animation capabilities. They are generally known by their trademark names:

·             Hologram  

·         Computer generated DOVIDs:
   Kinegram®  Identigram®,

 

   DID® - Diffractive Identification Device,

 177, 079, 178

Dot-Matrix-Hologram, Exelgram®, Movigram® (177), Pixelgram® (079), Stereogram® (178).

 

 


 

 092

OVI (Optically Variable Ink)

 

OVI is a printing ink that contains microscopic pigments acting as interference filters, resulting in large colour shifts (strong variations in colour) depending on the angle of observation or lighting.

 

OVIs are used in    intaglio printing  or in    screen printing.

 

 

 

 


 

 

Intaglio-printed OVI

 

 

 

 

OVI

(see the colour change in the example

on the right-hand side of this image:)

 

 

Screen-printed OVI on the € 50 Banknote

 

 

Counterfeit

 

Genuine

© Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OenB.at)

© Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OenB.at)

 

 

 

See also:    Iridescent ink

 

 


 

 159

PC (polycarbonate)

 

Polycarbonate (PC) is a thermoplastic polymer. When used as a substrate for documents (e.g. integrated biodata cards in passports, or polycarbonate ID cards), a composition of several layers is fused at high temperature and pressure.

 

Unlike   PVC cards for example, PC cards produce a sound with a metallic ring when dropped on a hard surface.

 

With PC as a substrate for security documents, a wide range of security features can be integrated, e.g.: 
  background / security printing

Personalisation by 

  inkjet printing colour personalisation inside the multi-layer laminate structure of a polycarbonate card.

  laser engraving (black), or e.g.  

  laser-perforated secondary (ghost) image

  variable laser image and

  transparent window.

 

The surface of PC cards can be tactile:

  raised (tactile) laser engraving,
  laminate embossing &  
  OVDs (Optically variable devices) can be incorporated.

 

 

 

  Microchip
  Magnetic strip
  Optical stripe   can be incorporated.

 

 

 

 

 

 160

Photochromic ink

 

Photochromic inks change their colour when exposed to    UV light. When the UV light source is removed, the colour change stays for a certain time before the colour reverts to its original state.

Examples: Estonia: passport, Malta: passport (since November 2000).

 

Laminate overprint with iridescent, photochromic ink

After exposure to UV light the greenish iridescent
overprint stays blue for a certain length of time

 

 

Not to be confused with:    Iridescent ink

 

 

 


 

 (073), (076), (032)

 130

Photograph of the holder - fixing methods

 

·   Photo Patch

Fixing method for conventional photos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 076

·   Glued

Fixing method for conventional photos.

 

 

 

 

 073

·   Eyelets (rivets)

Fixing method for conventional photos.

 

 

 


 

 032

·   Stapled

 

 

 

 

Authentication: See also:

See also:    Embossing stamp

See also:    Ink stamp

See also:    Relief embossing

 

 

See also:    Biodata / photo / signature integration

 

 

 

 088

Photographic paper

 

Photographic paper: the paper substrate is coated with light-sensitive chemicals.

 

(Not to be confused with specially coated printing papers for high-quality inkjet or laser printing (digital photographic) processes, which in everyday language are also referred to as photographic papers.)

 

 

See:    Photographic process

 

 

 

 


 

 161

Photographic process

 

Photographic process: Procedures by which light-sensitive materials are made to produce an image on   photographic paper. A photographic process is a possible integration technique for   biodata / photo / signature integration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biodata integration by photographic process

 

 

 

 


 

 080

Planchettes

 

Planchettes are small coloured discs incorporated (scattered) in the paper substrate during manufacture.

Planchettes are incorporated in a similar way to    coloured security fibres.

Planchettes can also be metallic or transparent; they may also fluoresce under    UV light, or be made of an iridescent substance showing colour shifts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coloured planchettes and fibres

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thermochromic planchettes

 

See also:

  Fluorescent planchettes

  Coloured security fibres

  Fluorescent fibres

  Substrate without optical brightener

 

 

 

 185

EN_SGC_43proz

 

PRADO


PRADO
(the Council of the European Union's Public Register of Authentic Identity and Travel Documents Online) is a multilingual site with information on authentic identity and travel documents. Document descriptions include technical descriptions - descriptions of some of the most important security features of the document and as a rule also include (indicative) information on the maximum possible validity of the described document, as well as information on its main usage.

Document experts in all EU Member States and in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland provide and select the information to be released to the general public via PRADO. The information originates from the classified  Expert FADO system. The steering committee in the Council of the European Union is the Working Party on Frontiers in the formation of False Documents experts.

PRADO is organised and hosted by the General Secretariat of the Council of the EU (GSC), in the Directorate-General for Justice and Home Affairs (in DG D). Technical implementation and maintenance are the responsibility of DG A CIS.

Most of the text entries in PRADO documents are standardised descriptions which are translated automatically into the currently supported 24 official languages of the EU. Thus immediate availability is assured. Free-text descriptions are translated by specialised linguists in the GSC.

http://prado.consilium.europa.eu

 

Target audience

PRADO targets the general public, including non-governmental organisations, but also governmental organisations, that do not have access to iFADO, including for example:

   ·  Employers

   ·  Postal services

   ·  Banks and credit authorities

   ·  Security companies

   ·  Car-rental agencies

 

●   When examining a document it is important to know its technical details

●   PRADO provides easy access to official information on many travel and identity documents



●  PRADO is also available with an optimised
 screen display for handheld devices:

http://prado.consilium.europa.eu/mobile/

 

 

Mission

The main purpose of PRADO is to provide free and reliable information in the Internet to anyone who (is required to) check identities. Identity checking not only takes place at the external borders of the Schengen Agreement Area, but happens regularly in everyday life. PRADO is intended to help raise awareness and ascertain the authenticity of documents; doubts can then be followed up by document experts.

 

Proceedings

Irrespective of a document's origin, questions (including questions on particulars of foreign documents) should be addressed to the respective  

  Identity and Travel Documents – National Contact Point.

 

Suggestions for improvements or observations on errors and bugs please send to:

helpline.prado@consilium.europa.eu

 

General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union (GSC)

Directorate-General Justice and Home Affairs, DG D 1A

Rue de la Loi 175

1048 Brussels, Belgium.

 

 

   See also:     FADO

   See also:     iFADO

 

 


 

 

 

 086

Pre-printed text

 

In a security document, pre-printed text is printed on top of the    background / security printing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Not to be confused with    biographical / other personalisation text.

 

Not to be confused with:    Background / security printing.

 

 

 


 

 

 099

 166

PVC (polyvinylchloride) card

 

PVC - a thermoplastic (transparent(099)) polymer - is used as a substrate in many documents.

 

 

  PC (polycarbonate) is often preferred for security printing and for card documents requiring high durability (long validity periods).

 

 


 

 045

Rainbow colouring

 

Rainbow colouring is also called split duct printing. This colouring process used in   offset printing is used to protect security documents against colour separation or copying by subtly merging colours into each other, resulting in a gradual colour change.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See also:    Background / security printing

See also:    Schablon (stencil) multiple colouring process

 

 


 

 029

Relief embossing

 

Relief embossing is sometimes also called blind embossing: A colourless embossing of images or text. It involves high-pressure embossing of letters, motifs or other designs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recto                                                                                          Verso

 

 

 

See also:

  Hot foil stamping

  Embossing stamp

  Laminate embossing

  PC (polycarbonate)

 

Authentication: See also:

See also:    Embossing stamp

See also:    Ink stamp

 

See also:    Photograph of the holder   -  fixing methods

 

 

 

 

 055

Retroreflective laminate

 

Retroreflective laminate: An invisible image is incorporated into the laminate, only rendered visible by the use of    co-axial light using a special viewer or technical equipment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Normal light (left) & viewed by co-axial light (right) 

 

 

 

 


 

 170

Schablon (stencil) multiple colouring process

 

The Schablon (stencil) multiple colouring process - sometimes also referred to as the Orlof (Orlov) process - is used in    intaglio printing and enables more than one colour to be printed simultaneously and accurately with one printing plate. A modern printing press can often print several colours (e.g. 3, 4, or 5). The individual colours are applied via individual stencils that match the elements or parts of the required final design. These stencils are also referred to as schablons (or chablons). The inks may overlap to a small extent and in the final printed image a slight colour transition can therefore be seen.

 

2 colours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 colours

 

 

The colour transitions need not, as in    rainbow colouring (offset printing), run parallel to the direction of the printing process in the printing machine.

 

See also:    Background / security printing

 

 

 

 


 

 085

Screen printing

 

Screen printing is a printing technique also known as silk-screen printing in which the print is produced by the ink being pressed with a so-called doctor blade through the permeable areas of a screen (mesh) on to the substrate below. Screen printing enables a thicker layer of ink to be applied in one operation than any other printing process.

Characteristics: Generally dense covering of ink, thick layer; net structure with saw-tooth edges.

 

In security printing, screen printing is mainly used for    laminate overprints or printing of    OVI.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Screen-printed OVI

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 168

Secondary (ghost) image

 

A Second (ghost or shadow) facial image of the document holder can be included on the biodata page or on a second page containing biographical information in the identity document. It can be applied by the same printing process as the primary facial image, or by different processes, e.g. using:

  fluorescent overprint,

  laser perforation, or an

  Identigram®.

 

 

 

Laser-perforated secondary (ghost) image viewed by transmitted light (on the right-hand side)

 

 

 

 

See also:    Biodata / photo / signature integration

 

 

 


 

 (037)

 036

Security thread

 

A security thread is a strip (plastic, metallic, or other material) incorporated in the substrate during manufacture to serve as an additional security feature. A broad range of different security threads exists, from polymer to metal-coated, coloured and micro-printed laminate strips, to highly complex threads which posess machine-readable properties e.g. magnetic or holographic personalised security threads.

 

ʛ鄼ᬫ°

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Security thread with negative microprint (by transmitted light)

 

 

See also:   Microprint

 

 

 

 037

The security thread may be completely embedded in the substrate or lie partly on top of it - window-like; then it is sometimes called windowed security thread, or windowed thread:

 

 

 

 

 

See also:    Fluorescent security thread

See also:    Endless text

See also:    Biographical / other personalisation text

 

 

 


 

 069

See-through register

 

See-through register: Images on the front and reverse side are printed in an accurate front-to-back register. Designs or partial motifs are seemingly printed at random on the recto and verso of the substrate, but they match up perfectly and form a complete new motif when viewed by    transmitted light.

 

Imperfect register in  false documents will produce a blurred image when viewed by transmitted light.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Motif on recto

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Motif on verso

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See-through register

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 169

Serial number

 

See:     Letterpress printing

See:     Laser-perforated serial number

 

 

Serial numbers are in our documents described under the heading  Numbering, as the numbering does not necessarily follow a series any more in very many recent security documents.

 

 

 


 

 

 035

Stitching thread

 

See:

  Binding technique, 

  Fluorescent stitching thread

 

 

 

 

 

 (074)

 087

 001

Substrate(087) without optical brightener(001)

 

For synthetic substrates: See under:    Synthetic fibres.

 

See also:    PC (polycarbonate).

 

Substrate without optical brightener: Security paper (e.g. 25 % to 100 % cotton fibre paper) is used e.g. in passports and for banknotes.

 074

Security paper does not contain optical brighteners and thus appears dark(074)  under    UV light.

The use of a paper substrate with optical brighteners in passports and other security documents is however also possible (but it is not very common).

 

Optical brighteners are substances which are incorporated during manufacture into a paper pulp which consists mainly of wood fibres, in order to make the substrate appear whiter. The presence of optical brighteners can be detected by their bluish fluorescence under    UV light.

 

Substrate without optical brighteners

Substrate with optical brighteners

 

Additional security features include:

  Coloured security fibres

  Planchettes

  Fluorescent fibres

 

 

 

 171

Synthetic fibres

 

Synthetic fibres are used as a main component in several special security papers; they make the substrate highly durable and resistant.

 

Examples of synthetic printing media:

Neobond® (e.g. old pink, folded German driving licence).

Teslin®   (as it is commercially available, Teslin® is also often used for counterfeiting ID cards.)

 

Synthetic fibres are not to be confused with   coloured security fibres  which do not contribute to the mechanical properties of a substrate.

 

See also:    Substrate

 

 

 

 131

Tank tracking - perforation

 

A method of securing a conventionally fixed (e.g. glued) image of the holder (authentication), applied with a (hand) press in the form of a pattern of lines; between the lines there are often perforated holes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Authentication methods:

See also:    Embossing stamp 

See also:    Ink stamp

 

 

 


 

 089

Thermal dye sublimation

 

Thermal dye sublimation: Like    thermal transfer printers, sublimation printers use an ink ribbon. The dye on the foil is heated to a specific temperature at which it evaporates and then diffuses into the substrate. For that diffusion process a specially coated substrate is necessary. Depending on the temperature applied, a varying amount of dye is diffused into the substrate.

 

This facilitates the production of an image with continuous tone colours. Thermal dye sublimation is a possible integration technique for    biodata / photo / signature integration.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 048

Thermal transfer printing

 

In thermal transfer printing, halftones are generated by rasterisation (screening). The transfer of a homogeneous layer of colour results in dots or areas with sharp edges.

 

Special ink ribbons, e.g. with metallic pigments, can also be used.

 

Thermal transfer printing is a possible integration technique for   biodata / photo / signature integration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 094

Thermochromic ink

 

Thermochromic ink is a special ink that changes colour in a reversible way at different temperatures.

 

 

 

 


 

 172

Tilting effect

 

Tilting effect: An image or characters can be seen, or change, when the document is tilted.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Dynaprint® )

 

 

 

 

For other special tilting effects see:

  latent image

  laser perforation with tilting effect

  variable laser image

 

See also:     Oblique light

 

 

 


 

 173

Transmitted light

 

Transmitted light is light shining through the object being viewed (here: page of a document).

The object to be viewed is placed between the eye (or camera) and the light source.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Light source

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Document examiner

 

 

Page of document

 

 

 

 

See also:    Transparent window

See also:    Watermark

 

See also:     Co-axial light

See also:     Oblique light

 

See also:     UV light

 

 

 


 

 189

Transparent window

 

The transparent window is incorporated into the substrate during manufacture. When using transmitted light and a magnifying device, e.g. a    CLI® or details of biographical data may become visible.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See also:    PC (polycarbonate)

See also:    Transmitted light

 

 

 


 

 103

UV light (ultraviolet light)

 

UV light belongs to the electromagnetic waves at the lower boundary of visible light (200 - 400 nm) - a source of light that is frequently used in document examination to analyse substrate brightness, fluorescent inks and other security features as well as tampering.

 

Questioned or faded documents can be examined with UV light to obtain improved sharpness and resolution. Many inks show a difference in visible fluorescence (  fluorescent ink).    Fluorescent security fibres may fluoresce brightly. Additionally, when these fibres are disturbed by erasure by a forger, the difference can be noted under UV light.

 

 

 

 

 

Light source
(UV light)

 

 

 

 

Document examiner

 

 

 

 

                   Page of document

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Simple UV hand light for document examination

The main UV sources used in document examination are UV sources with 365/366 nm (long-wave UV), 313 nm (medium wave UV) and 254 nm (short-wave UV) wavelength radiation.  Ultraviolet "light" is not visible itself, only its effect, i.e. the visible fluorescence stimulated by UV light can be seen:

  fluorescent ink.

 

See also:     fluorescent overprint

 

 

 

 

See also:     Co-axial light

See also:     Oblique light

See also:     Transmitted light

 

 


 

 158

Variable laser image

 

A variable laser image is a laser-engraved image with tilting effects, incorporated in plastic cards: images are engraved at different angles through an array of cylindrical lenses embossed into the surface of the card. The image that can be seen changes depending on the angle of view.

 

Examples:

 113

            CLI ® - Changeable Laser Image

 114

            MLI ® - Multiple Laser Image

 

 

MLI ®:  depending on the angle of view either the serial number or the year of expiry can be seen.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CLI ® 

 

 

 

See also:

  Laser engraving,

  Secondary (ghost) image,

  OVD (Optically Variable Device)

 

 

 

 

 (062), (063), (064)

 061

Watermark

 

A traditional watermark is a picture, text or character design which is produced by pressure on the substrate during manufacture, leading to a varying thickness of the paper. It is sometimes also called Fourdrinier watermark.

The watermark can be observed using   transmitted light. Where the substrate is thinner, we can see more light and a clearer image. Where the substrate is thicker we will see a darker image.


As opposed to a printed watermark, the traditional watermark should not appear under 
 UV light.

 

We distinguish different types of watermarks:

 064

·    Single tone watermark

The single-tone watermark can be light or dark.

 

Single tone (dark) watermark

Single tone (light) watermark

 

 062

 

 


 

 174

·    Duotone watermark

The motif of a duotone watermark is both light and dark.

 

 

 

 


 

 063

·    Multitone watermark

Sometimes also called cylinder mould watermark.

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The End.

 

 

 

 186

 

This glossary does NOT provide scientific definitions – its main aim is to help anyone who is not involved in checking security documents on a daily basis to understand some of the more important security features contained in such documents. To this end, simple, non-exhaustive definitions, examples and explanations are provided.

 

 

In order to consult the same chapter in a different language version of this document, please look for the corresponding grey three-digit chapter number on the top right-hand side of each chapter.

 

 

 

Please send any suggestions for improvements and observations on errors and bugs to: helpline.PRADO@consilium.europa.eu

 

 

 


© European Union 2007-2014

General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union, General Directorate for Justice and Home Affairs, DG D 1A,

Rue de la Loi 175, 1048 Brussels, Belgium, Europe.

helpline.PRADO@consilium.europa.eu

 

Reproduction is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged.

 

Where prior permission must be obtained for the reproduction or use of textual and multimedia information (sound, images, software, etc.), such permission shall cancel the abovementioned general permission and shall clearly indicate any restrictions on use.